Blog 4

This blogpost is TahrirAtTalims 4. contribution in the course “Digitale medier” and is based on Entesars and Mettes individual assignments.
First part of the blog is a selection of what potentials we see of digital media on a strategic level. Second part is a reflection on wether we managed solving our 8th grade student’s problems with their technology? And we make some other reflection on other possible solutions for the students with the technology in charge…

In our use of media to connect and collaborate, we needed a series of questions to identify the diversity in media for finding out the potential. Baym offers 7 key concepts:
Does the media enable social interactions? Is the temporal structure synchronous or asynchronous? What social signals/expression are available? Can the media store information? Can the stored information be shared, transmitted or distributed later? How many active users can be reached? Are there restrictions on participation?

Twitter is used for microblogging, asking/answering, sharing and connecting. It is both synchronous and asynchronous and smileys and pictures are available plus the 140 sign long text. It is stored at the server and replicated by use of hashtags. 478.000 users are registered in Denmark, 304 mio active users every month worldwide. There are great debates on twitter for everybody to join in, but I use Twitter to show sympathy or to “spread a good mood”, as another way of smiling to people. We are sure it has great potential for spreadability, but Mette has not found out how it works.

Blogs were used and ment from the teachers side for us to comment and learn from each other. Unfortunately it was limited at the university-site for blogs how many pictures we could upload to our blog, and we moved it to a larger place.
Now that we are represented on a website with a blog, we use it as a platform for creating and broadcasting, and have embedded twitter, published our prototype and organized the site with most of our adapted empirical data as a sort of “documentation” of our work.

Bayms concept of replicability (“Can the stored information be shared, transmitted or distributed later?”) has been a real challenge in regard to our lives as students, locating lost information: if you don’t follow the debate on a regular basis in the ITDD14-Facebook group, it is very easy to miss important information. And close to impossible to find it again when needed.
We have tried to solve the problem of lost information in many ways, and for the moment we try out a service called Trello. Trello is a flexible and visual way to manage and organize anything. It synchronizes with google calendar, and to us that is essential. Apart from one board (the information is organized in socalled “boards”) we have a board organizing our next big assignment. One of the practical features is we can “drag and drop” squares of information as we see fit.
Screenshot from 2015-06-07 23:23:19
In trello you can make attachments i.e. pictures. The attachment-function is fully integrated with a series of other storages as for instance google drive, dropbox and onedrive.
The strongest argument for trello is the replicability: being a visual learners myself, I enjoy everything being stored in graphic boxes, the easy access (via links) and the good overview of the subject or assignment.
Organized well, it is visual access “on demand”, OS-neutral and the drag and drop function.

Mission accomplished?


Will the students still feel bored in the classroom during their math teaching? Will they continue getting frustrated by their teacher who keeps telling them “it’s not my problem”? Have we in Tahrir@Talim managed to empower them through our ICT educational design?

We don’t know yet.. But we believe in our method. We believe we listened to the students and to their needs, we worked together with them, and we are still not done, as we don’t know how this design will take place in the future or it will take an end. We need to continue the project and evaluate together with the students.. this may take time.?!

But, we wish that our design will make more sense and feeling of meaningfulness for the students on their own initiative and an invitation from and to each other in the class to produces these instructional videos for each other for sharing.

However these videos can later on be used by the next 8th graders, and can therefore complement the video range with other topics as they may require.

Again for the future this may be a trend in the school, that students make instructional videos for each other in the different subjects and topics that meet their needs for empowerment in the class.

As Bang says: ”vidensorganisering og vidensdeling med støtte i it-systemer udvikles i tæt forbindelse med den kultur de skal fungere i og i samspil med dem der producerer viden, og dem som bruger den…” (Bang 2004)

Here we wish to conclude, that this 8th grade, has a lack of digital literacy. But mostly their teachers need to be empowered in using digital media, as  “They need to be taught about these technologies, just like people born into a community needs to be taught how to speak the language or use tools and equipment that are available to the community” (W. Ng 2012)

So, the teachers also need to develop their own “...philosophical and ethical frameworks for understanding digital cultures and for them then to use those frameworks to guide their practice. “ (Poore 2011)

Will this new approach, of leaving the students, until the teacher is empowered with these technologies then solve the student’s problems? they won’t be bored longer? …


Bang, Jørgen: (2011). “Hvad gør et medie til et vidensmedie?” IN: Nielsen et al. (Ed.): Nye vidensmedier : kultur, læring, kommunikation. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.

Poore, M. (2011). Digital Literacy: Human Flourishing and Collective Intelligence in a Knowledge Society. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 19(2), 20.,

Wan Ng (2012) Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? School of Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia Computers & Education 59  1065–1078

Milestone 3

“Our concept is pupils teaching pupils in the use of their ICT-based educational resources.
We operate on two levels; one being peer-to-peer collaboration, feedback, learning and teaching; the other how to take care of a challenge in society and make a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge of all.
Everything centered around instructional videos of how to use specific apps used by their math teacher.”


Et undervisningsforløb



Lektier før første gang:
læs og se Instruktion i instruktion.
Optagelse af screencast er tænkt som en hjælp, hvis I ikke har prøvet at lave videoer før.
Stil evt. spørgsmål i kommentarfeltet.

28. maj 2015:
Vi gennemgår spørgsmål ift Instruktion i instruktion.
Vi laver et kort på tavlen over hvilke funktioner i Geogebra, FESSOR, Excel og Word, som I kender.
Vi udvælger de allerletteste funktioner hver især. Det er ok at vælge noget, som andre har valgt, fordi denne første gang er en slags “prøvegang”.
Vi aftaler hvilke videoer I vil lave og hvor mange I skal se hhv give feedback på anden gang. Feedback betyder her konkret beskrivelse af hvad du ser. Hvad er godt, hvad kan gøres bedre?

Lektier før anden gang:
Lav videoer, læg et link i kommentarene herunder, se nogle af de andres videoer og tænk over feedback til de videoer I hver især har forpligtet jer til at give feedback på.

4. juni 2015:
Entesar og Mette har udvalgt 1-2 videoer med super god og klar udtale som vises og 1-2 videoer med super god og klar struktur i stoffets opbygning.
Spørgsmål og feedback fra eleverne.
Feedback til Entesar og Mette fra erfarne elever: er der noget ud over lyd og struktur, som vi har glemt at gøre opmærksom på, noget, som også er væsentligt når man laver instruktionsvideoer? Altså, mangler der instruktioner i Instruktion i instruktion?
Vi fordeler de næst-letteste videoopgaver og I går i gang med at lave dem, sammen eller hver for sig.
Måske får Entesar og Mette brug for hjælp fra elever til at lave intro og outro samt videoer om at lave screenshots.

Lektier før tredje gang:
Lav videoer og vis dem til hinanden. Giv feedback.

Tredje gang:
Giv feedback til hinanden og til os.

Instruktion i instruktion:

Det kan være svært at lære noget nyt.
Men det kan også være svært at lære fra sig og forklare hvad man kan.
Nogle gange er det lettere at vise end at beskrive.
Det kan man bruge instruktionsvideoer til.
Entesar og Mette laver en intro og outro (måske i samarbejde med nogle elever), dvs “velkomsthilsen” og “rulletekster”. Imellem de to skal indholdet være og denne tekst med video handler om, hvordan indholdet kan laves.

Du skal bruge:
Computer med internetadgang og evt en mikrofon eller et headset.

Forberedelse til lyd:
Først skal du beslutte om din video skal være naturligt optaget, altså hvor lyd og billeder optages samtidig.
Eller om lyden skal optages bagefter.
Eller om du hellere vil have undertitler eller have video helt uden ord.
Og du skal teste dit lydudstyr og finde ud af, hvad der fungerer bedst.

En anden måde at forberede lyd på er ved at ranke ryggen, trække vejret dybt et par gange og tale LIDT langsomt og LIDT dybt. Prøv dig frem og få andre til at lytte til din speaker-stemme. Fordi det er jo vigtigt at alle kan høre og forstå hvad du siger på videoen og derfor er både ordene og måden du bruger din stemme på væsentlig.

Så skal du skrive nogle stikord, som du kan tale ud fra:
Først præsenterer du hvilket problem du vil løse eller funktion du vil vise (“Jeg vil vise hvordan man laver en cirkel i programmet Cirkeline”).
Så viser du hvordan du gør, mens du fortæller (“Først åbner jeg programmet. Så gør jeg ….”).
Her er mit manus, komplet med kragetæer og kaffeplet.

Har du din computer, din mikrofon og dit manuskript parat til at lave screencast?

Vis din video ved at lægge et link i kommentarfeltet herunder sammen med en sætning om, hvilket program og hvilket problem/funktion der arbejdes med.

Optagelse af screencast

Åbn hjemmesiden og tryk på “Start recording”
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 11:59:46

Hvis du bruger Mac eller Windows trykker du på “Record Screencast”.
Jeg bruger Linux, så jeg trykker på “Recorder v1.0”
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 11:59:54

Siden loader og når den beder om adgang til Java svarer jeg “yes”
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:04

Sådan ser rammen ud. Det indenfor den stiblede firkant er det, der optages.
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:21

Først tjekker jeg rammens størrelse. Til denne demonstration på youtube vælger jeg bare den mindste opløsning.
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:31

Så tjekker jeg hvilken mikrofon, der er indstillet.
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:37

Når lyd- og billedkvalitet er på plads, åbner jeg den browser jeg vil lave screencast fra. Jeg flytter den stiblede firkant hen på plads, så det passer med hvad jeg vil vise. Det gør jeg ved at sætte cursoren på den hvide firkant i midten af den stiblede linje og trække den rundt.Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:49Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:00:57

Tryk på den røde knap nederst til venstre på den stiblede ramme.
“3-2-1-GO!” og så går programmet igang med at optage i op til 15 minutter.
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:01:03Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:01:03 - 1

Mens du optager kan du ikke se den gule cirkel

Tjek din film og gem den. Jeg foretrækker “Video file”, fordi det er på min egen computer jeg gemmer så. Når jeg er helt tilfreds med filmen og har redigeret den færdig, lægger jeg den op på ekv.s. youtube.
Screenshot from 2015-05-19 12:25:07

Tahrir@Talim’s renewed strategy towards #MAICED

Our strategy towards #MAICED

Looking back at our main communication strategy plan (link to plan) made before CP, we are making a sort of new plan for our strategy towards #MAICED. As the internet is seen as a means of communication (Castells, 2003), we would continue using twitter and facebook as main resources to form some relationships that form the networking and communities in a way that can create dialogue, interest and awareness towards #MAICED, also promoting our other study fellows  contributions to these.

We choose to continue our use of the social medias twitter and facebook, because of the effect we have gained and observed during the days of CP

And as Dalsgaard says:”… dialogue engages the individual and enables him/her to participate and influence communication.”(Dalsgaard 2009)

TahrirAtTalim FB

According to Jenkins et al, there are two models for the participants, which both start from the assumption that participants feel greater investment in institutions and networked culture:

  • We are resistant to something, that is, we are organized in opposition to a dominant power.

  1. We participate in something, that is , participation is organized in and through social collectivities and connectivities. (Jenkins et al 2013)

Therefore with our aim to enter meaningful relationships with networks and communities, whom we want to reach to make meaningful dialogue with, we then must be more engaged in our way of using Twitter and facebook.

Our (new) strategy:

Our Twitter and facebook plan toward #MAICED:

  1. promoting our ICT educational design – brand communities (Jenkin et al. 1013)
  2. inviting individuals with common interest to answer questions
  3. enter dialogues and networks (Dalsgaard 2009)
  4. using the hashtags #TahrirAtTalim #Maiced #ITDD14 #IWDK

Participants in the digital age is a complicated matter.  Issues like who owns the platforms through which communication occurs and how their agendas shape how those tools can be deployed. Let’s say we got the message through, still we can’t tell if anyone is listening. (Jenkins et al 2013)

It is also important to consider the spreadability of our communication strategy, and try to make it:

  • available when and where audiences want it.
  • portable
  • easy reuseable in variety of ways
  • relevant to multiple audiences
  • part of steady stream of material

Therefore to reach more people, we should understand the patterns that make people want our idea and our ICT based educational design.  We should learn how to make interest about them and our movement. Everyone is a potential sender on the internet and we have the opportunity to make contacts, across time and space. (inspired by Meyrowitz 1994)

And most importantly, to create something people want to spread, we should understand what makes the people/ the audience motivated. “.. After all, humans rarely engage in meaningless activities”. (Jenkins et al 2013)

Regarding our 8.graders TahrirAtTalim is examining how to empower them in their formal school setting. How can we help them help themselves?

Getting the data:

The goal of our work with the 8. graders is through the design process to get to know the students and to be able to develop an ICT didactic design grounded in their lives and challenges.

Trying to get to know the 8. graders we wanted to make a survey to get to know their habits of using the internet. Preparing for that we asked Mettes Facebook friends (the ones born in and around 2000 was tagged) to tell us where to start when asking for use of social media. In the process we even bribed a class of 8. graders in Jylland with foam kisses and it worked. Hurrah for personal relations making bribery as strategy possible!
Apart from this one online observation of their lives, we had no luck in engaging the students online. The students were very forthcoming, friendly and informative as soon as we talked with them face to face. Apart from the interviews, we  observed the students using photos and video recordings.

Observing and asking the students, we found out most of them have laptops and smartphones of their own. And our data pointed to a challenge in using these tools in the classroom:

The challenge we saw was students not being able to use their devices because of lack of knowledge of how to use the apps and programs used by the teacher.

The design:

The observations gave birth to a design teaching the students to make instructional videos. In these videos they show what they have found out (and what they are going to learn during the video-lessons) in regard to 3 specific apps and one cross-media functionality used in their math-lessons. We are going to make the course “flipped”, using and producing for youtube. The end product, made by the students, is to be distributed by the youtube-channel of the school for everybody involved to be proud of and everybody else to benefit from.

In that way the students are participating as both consumers and content makers. Hopefully they will reach more than a “messing around” stage during the offered course, see possibilities in using their skills for their own agenda and feel empowered, because that is our main goal for our didactic design.

½ milestone 2

(Perhaps) Our Final Vision

“Probably the most important thing for kids growing up today is the love of embracing change.” John Seely Brown said, and to embrace change you need not to feel
threatened by it, but feel able to manage it. We believe in empowerment as engagement for that!

According to the political biased, empowerment has two variations (our google-translation):

“A liberal variant in which empowerment is all about individuals’ ability to pursue their own goals, but where there are no issues with society’s inequality-generating structures.”


“A social criticism, solidarian variation that focuses on collective awareness and responsiveness in relation to the change of living conditions for underprivileged groups.”

And in an educational context Warschauer, Turbee and Roberts (1996) writes:

“French educator Celestin Freinet, little known in the English-speaking world but influential in Europe and Latin America, linked the empowering potential of social discourse to the issues of technology and networking (Cummins and Sayers, 1990).”

The goal of empowerment is to enable, “to increase” some kind “of strength of an entity or entities”, it “is supporting another person or persons to discover and claim personal power”. (copy pasted from 3 different wikis)

Alas! We can only teach, not decide what the students learn, and thereby decide how they use the empowerment. But we hope as Klafki, that they become autonomous, find it worthwhile to participate and act in solidarity (Klafki, 2000).

Therefore, we believe that both kinds of empowerment can engage the pupils in learning, and it can provide them more democratic learning experience and that there will be more powerful resource in the classroom.

A didactic design suggestion

Diana Laurillard (Laurillard 2012, p 82) says:

“Students need help with motivation to learn because formal learning has distant rewards, except for the intrinsic reward of intellectual curiosity. They need help with how to approach the learning of something that is the product of someone else’s thinking, and teachers do not naturally provide an environment that affords learning of this kind.”

By that understanding, we are going to offer a course, co-designed by the 8. graders, in making instructional videos on various issues concerning the programs and apps used in their school setting by the teachers (i.e. WordMat, Geogebra etc). They better this list of tutorials by iteration we blogged about on April 6.
The productional aim is, that after the course, the students are going to make instructional videos in both danish and their shared language and arrange a youtube-channel for spreading their tools for empowerment.

We support our design idea here with Freinet’s argument as quoted by Warschauer, Turbee and Roberts (1996):

“He urged educators to give youth control over as many audiovisual techniques as possible, including tape recorders, television, radio and movies, in order to achieve profound engagement with their social and physical worlds (Freinet, 1963/1974: p. 32).“

And as James Banks also states:

“A curriculum designed to empower students must be transformative in nature and help students to develop the knowledge, skills, and values needed to become social critics who can make reflective decisions and implement their decisions in effective personal, social, political, and economic action. (p. 131)”

reference Urban Education Horn

Therefore- the teaching is likely to be flipped and run as a project.
We see it as education in both collaboration, in media-knowledge, in the programs and apps, in language and civic influence/participation.

If this project is not perceived as empowerment for or by the regular math-teacher, at least it is born in solidarity:

“1. Teachers have too little time to find and evaluate software.
2. They do not have appropriate training and development opportunities.
3. It is too soon – we need decades to learn how to use new technology.
4. Educational institutions are organized around traditional practices. (Cuban 2001)”

(Laurillard, 2012 p 83), which goes very well with our own findings.

For information purposes, the mathematics teacher has not been considered in our field work, nor interviewed. Though we keep her up to date with our field study. Therefore, we recognize that a possible collaboration with the teacher could have given further opportunities or changes to our design.

Core value workshop


We summoned the 8. graders for a core value workshop, where we led them through a process not unlike the one we had in Aarhus back in February, in the beginning of february. We asked them to sit at three tables, both boys and girls at every table. We had an agenda we followed, as described in our blog, asking the children to filter out their core values. We were explicit in telling them to make examples for the values they chose, how can it be seen in their daily lives, actions and habits, that those are their values?

image(1) We asked the students to group the values to see if any patterns occurred.
We spoke afterward with the students in each group about the values they choose, why, what it meant to them, how they find themselves within these values, we asked the other students in the same group, whether they could agree with the others about the chosen and explained reasons for the values.
Then we interviewed them. This time we asked them to make only two groups, and we made this focus group interview with the groups, based on the questions we had prepared about how much influence they have inside the classroom when the teacher is there too.
At the end we told them to evaluate the process, told them they would be helping us in our further study- and work life to find out what was interesting in the process and what was perceived as pointless. Screenshot_2015-04-23-15-18-30

We did as we did for several reasons:
We wish the students to qualify our work by giving us feedback.
We wish to live by

“The views expressed by children may add relevant perspectives and experience and should be considered in decision-making, policymaking and preparation of laws and/or measures as well as their evaluation”

according to the UN Convention on the Rights of Children §12 and let the students be subjects with voices and not objects to be studied.
We wish to show the students one way of giving and receiving feedback in a constructive way.

Reflections on our fieldwork

We tried to work strictly design’ish, as we understand it:

First we observed until boredom to find patterns and concluded from the observations (9. of March Entesar alone in one school, 9. of March Morten and Mette in another school and 10. of March, Egon, Entesar and Mette in the first school). We have photos, video and written observations from the three sessions.

Beginning to triangulate our data (not argumenting with theory yet) Entesar and Mette then had a focus group interview on the 11. of March with the students from the first school to follow up on our findings.
It was illuminating to ask the students if it was correctly seen, that they had problems with mathematics and they answered no. It turned out, that the math in itself was easy. But the apps they were using were hard to figure out, because their teacher does not know how to always help the students in their need at the exact moment and situation.

1. One design suggestion could be to empower the teacher by teaching her the use of relevant apps.

2. Another design suggestion could be to make a list of resources for the students (or the teacher), a playlist of instructional videos and articles of tutorials.

But our analysis of the collected empirical data from the fieldwork and analysis of focus group interviews has been pointing toward the design concept we have come up with the interpretation from the students. As Müller describes:

“…Participatory design (PD) is a set of theories, practices, and studies related to end users as full participants in activities leading to software and hardware computer products and computer-based activities “

(Müller, 2002) We have followed the steps in participatory design, and specially after the workshop we made with the students, we got more confidence in our design-thinking.

Therefor we came up with yet another design:

3. Why teach the students or the teacher about apps, when we could teach the students to teach the teacher and other pupils about the apps?

With this concept we try to bind it all together:

it is participatory design (Müller, 2002)
it is Klafkis epoca typical problem and his allgemeinbildung (Klafki, 2000)
If we see ourselves as the teachers, it is Freire dialog between student-teacher and teacher-student on shared concern (Freire 1996) regarding Klafkis epoca typical problem.
It is Biestas (2015) content, purpose and relationship
It is Laurillard (2012) telling us to design, test, analyze, re-design, re-test and report and us doing it with the students.

We must say that due to timing reasons we still have not got the opportunity to try out our design concept with the students. Therefore we cannot answer the question fully. But we have some expectations, due to our analyzes from the fieldwork and focus group interviews, the core value workshop and with the understandings we got from Freinet, regarding how to gain empowerment by giving the students the needed control of the techniques ( using the technical devices and digital media programs), to achieve profound engagement with their social and physical worlds. We assume that we have a solid mockup to be build upon.
Our futurescenario

Our journey


Biesta, G. (2015). What is Education For? On Good Education, Teacher Judgement, and Educational Professionalism. European Journal Of Education, 50(1). doi:10.1111/ejed.12109

Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin.

Horn, Brian R. (2015): Eight Voices of Empowerment: Student Perspectives in a Restructured Urban Middle School. Urban Education

Klafki, W. (2000). Vedrørende spørgsmålet om et tidsvarende dannelsesbegreb : grundlæggende træk af et nyt alment dannelsesbegreb og dets konsekvenser. Religionslæreren.

Laurillard, Diana (2012): Teaching as a Design Science – Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. NY: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Müller, M. (2002): Participatory design: the third space in HCI, The human- computer interaction handbook: fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, 2002

Warschauer, Mark and Turbee,Lonnie and Roberts, Bruce (1996):Computer Learning Networks And Student Empowerment. Elsevier Science Ltd –